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Indian Status of Mango
(Area, Production And Productivity-Growth Pattern)

The production scenario of different fruits in India indicates that all the fruits occupied 3.788 million ha area with a production of 45.203 million tonnes. The total allocation to the fruits in the country has in fact declined from 4.01 mill ha during the previous year, while the total production of fruits has increased over and above 43.001 mill. tonnes in the previous year. Mango was the most important crop occupying 42.84 per cent of the total area under the fruits however, it accounted for only 28.17 per cent of the total production of fruits. Both the area and production has registered an increase over the previous year when the area and production accounted for 39.29 and 23.30 per cent of the total area under fruit and their production respectively. Consequently, mango productivity depicte increase from 6.4 to 7.8 tonnes par ha during 2001-02 and 2002-03. Next important fruit crops were Citrus fruits, which accounted for 14.86 per cent of the total area and 12.56 per cent of the total production in the country. Their productivity was only 7.8 tonnes per ha. Banana, which ranked third, occupied only 12.54 per cent of the area and accounted for 29.43 per cent of the total fruit production and had the second highest productivity of 28.0 tonnes per ha. Even guava, which ranked fifth in terms of area by accounting for 4.09 per cent of the total area under fruits, had higher productivity (11.06 tonnes per ha) than mango.

Table-1: Area, production and productivity of major fruit in India during 2002-03

Sl.
No.

Fruits

Area

Production

Productivity
MT/ha

Mill. ha

Prop. (%)

Mill. Tonnes

Prop. (%)

  1.  

Mango

1.623

42.84

12.733

28.17

7.8

  1.  

Citrus

0.563

14.86

5.677

12.56

10.1

  1.  

Banana

0.475

12.54

13.304

29.43

28.0

  1.  

Apple

0.193

5.10

1.348

2.98

7.0

  1.  

Guava

0.155

4.09

1.793

3.97

11.06

  1.  

Sapota

0.084

2.22

0.913

2.02

10.8

  1.  

Pineapple

0.080

2.11

1.172

2.59

14.7

  1.  

Papaya

0.068

1.80

2.147

4.75

31.6

  1.  

Litchi

0.054

1.43

0.476

1.05

8.8

  1.  

Grapes

0.052

1.37

1.248

2.76

24.0

  1.  

Others

0.441

11.64

4.391

9.72

 

 

Total

3.788

100.00

45.203

100.00

11.9

A perusal of area under mango in the country indicated that it has been growing almost linearly over the years  (Table-2). In fact it has grown from 1.078 to 1.1.623 ha during the period 1991-92 to 2002-03 depicting a growth of about 50.6 percent. However, the production has been fluctuating drastically. During 1991, the production stood at 8.752 million tonnes, which increased to 10.113 during 1993 and peaked at 10.993 in the following year, Since then it has been declining, although showing a moderate recovery during the intervening periods and reaching the highest level of 12.733 million tonnes during the year 2002-03. During the year 2001 the production stood at 10.020 million tonnes. The over all increase was found to be about 45.5 per cent. Thus the production has not kept pace with the increase in the area at least up to 2001-02. The productivity of mango was observed to be 8.1 tonnes per ha during 1991-92, which kept on increasing up to 1994, when it peaked at 9.0 tonnes per ha. Since than the productivity has continuously been going down. During 2001 the productivity was recorded at 6.4 tonnes per ha, depicting an over all decline of 21 per cent during 1991 – 2001. However, during 2002-03 the productivity reached to 7.4 tonnes per ha, but continued to be lower than 1991-92.

Table-2: Area Production and productivity of mango in India

Year

Area

Production

Productivity MT/ha

Mill. ha

% of total fruit area

Mill Tonnes

% of total fruit area

1991-92

1.078

37.5

8.752

30.4

8.1

1992-93

1.137

35.5

9.223

28.0

8.1

1993-94

1.217

38.2

10.113

27.1

8.3

1994-95

1.228

28.5

10.993

28.5

9.0

1995-96

1.283

38.2

10.811

26.0

8.4

1996-97

1.345

37.6

9.981

24.7

7.4

1997-98

1.385

37.5

10.234

23.7

7.4

1998-99

1.402

37.6

9.782

21.4

7.0

1999-00

1.487

37.3

10.504

23.0

7.1

2000-01

1.519

39.3

10.057

23.3

6.6

2001-02

1.576

39.3

10.020

23.3

6.4

2002-03

1.623

42.8

12.733

28.2

7.8

A perusal of the state-wise area and production indicated that the Andhra Pradesh continued to be the leading mango producing state by accounting for 21.6 per cent of the area and 24.4 per cent of the production of mango in the country. It was followed by Uttar Pradesh, which accounted for 16.1 per cent of the area and 19.5 per cent of the production. Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Orissa were the other important states cultivating mango significantly and commercially. The States like Maharashtra contribute maximum towards export of mangoes from the country. Other states, like Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are striving to increase their share in export by diversifying the export basket. A comparison of area and production of mango during 2000-01 and 2001-02 indicated that the both are and production of mango in Andhra Pradesh has increased, but the increase in area was faster than the production, resulting into lowere productivity, i.e 7.2 Mt/ha during 2001-02 in comparison to 8.0 MT par ha during the previous year. Similar trend was observed in Uttar Pradesh where the productivity has declined from 9.0 to 7.70 during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively. This indicated that the new plantations are in the juvenile phase and are yet to come in bearing. In fact the productivity of mango was reported to be higher in Uttar Pradesh in comparison to Andhra Pradesh. Highest productivity of mango, i.e. 9.6 and 9.8 MT per ha during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively, was reported from Karnataka followed by West baengal at 8.9MT per ha during 2001-02. The lowest productivity of mango was observed in Maharashtra and Orissa, where it was bellow 4 Mt par ha.

Table-3 : State-wise area, production and productivity of mango


States

Area(Mill. ha)

Production ( Mill. T)

Productivity (T/ha)

2000-01

2001-02

2000-01

2001-02

2000-01

2001-02

Andhra Pradesh

0.306

0.341

2.450

2.446

8.0

7.20

Uttar Pradesh

0.249

0.253

2.250

1.950

9.0

7.70

Bihar

0.139

0.139

1.113

1.253

8.0

9.00

Karnataka

0.134

0.116

1.291

1.131

9.6

9.80

West Bengal

0.063

0.065

0.380

0.585

6.1

8.90

Maharashtra

0.147

0.165

0.501

0.559

3.4

3.40

Gujarat

0.061

0.065

0.364

0.457

6.0

7.00

Tamil Nadu

0.108

0.111

0.556

0.439

6.6

4.00

Orissa

0.104

0.107

0.363

0.402

3.5

3.80

Others

0.208

0.214

0.789

0.798

-

-

Total

1.519

1.576

10.057

10.020

6.7

6.40

 (Source : Market News Service, UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva and APEDA, New Delhi)

 

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