Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most important fruit crop in India having socio-economic significance.  It is known as king of fruits owing to delicious quality of fruit rich in vitamins and minerals.  Its long period of domestication is well evidenced from its mention in ancient scripture. Ancient Indian valued mango not merely for its sentiment or religious consideration, but they realized its importance in economic and cultural life of the society.  Muslim Kings Nawabs promoted the practice of planning best variety, Lakhi bagh (one lakh plants) planted by Akbar the Great is well known in the history.  Aine-Akbari, an encyclopedia written during the period 1590 AD amply gives the understanding of mango of that period.  However research with specified objective started with the turn of the century.

Common mango (Mangifera indica L.) originated as alloploid and its native home was suggested as Eastern India, Assam to Burma or possibly further in the Malay region. Introduction of superior types into Malay region from India is also an evidence of its origin in India. Based on detailed study of the history, phyto-geographical distribution of allied species, fossil records, evidence of numerous wild and cultivated varieties in India researchers considered origin of genus Mangifera probably in Burma, Siam, Indo-china and the Malay peninsula, but the birth of common mango in Assam-Burma region and not in Malay. According to De Candolle  'It is impossible to doubt that it [the mango] is a native of south Asia or of the Malay archipelago, when we see the multitude of varieties cultivated in those countries, the number of ancient names, in particular a Sanskrit name, its abundance in the gardens of Bengal, of Deccan peninsula, and of Ceylon even in Rheede's time (i.e., 1683). Owing to the importance of this fruit, it is grown widely in varying agro-climatic conditions ranging from tropical to sub-tropical, and humid tropics to semi-humid tropics.


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